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Citing Sources

Guidelines and examples for the Chicago Style

The "Notes and Bibliography" System

This is the first of Chicago's two systems of citation. Bibliographic citations are provided in notes (footnotes or endnotes), with or without a full bibliography at the end of the text.

Notes
First Name Last Name or Institution, Title: Subtitle; Second subtitle. Edition (if not the first). Volume, total number of volumes if multivolume work is referred to as a whole, or number of the volume cited. Title of the volume, if applicable. Series title, and volume number within series if series is numbered (Place of publication: Publisher, year of publication), Page number(s) if applicable.

Example
Thomas Piketty, Capital in the Twenty-First Century. (Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014), 56-68.

Bibliography
Last Name, First Name or Institution. Title: Subtitle; Second subtitle. Edition. Series title and volume number within series. Place of publication: Publisher, date of publication.

Example 1
Piketty, Thomas. Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014.

Example 2 (the author is an institution)

Organisation Mondiale du Commerce and Organisation Mondiale de la Santé. Les accords de l’OMC et la santé publique: étude conjointe de l’OMS et du secrétariat de l’OMC. Geneva: Organisation Mondiale de la Santé: Organisation Mondiale du Commerce, 2002.

Example 3 (multiple authors)
Note: First Name Last Name Author 1 and First Name Last Name Author 2.
Bibliography: Last Name, First Name Author 1 and First Name Last Name Author 2.
The name of the first author is inverted in the bibliography, because the references are arranged alphabetically.

Steven, Graeme C. S. and Rohan Gunaratna. Counterterrorism: a Reference Handbook. Contemporary world issues.  Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC Clio, 2004.

If there are more than 3 authors, all names are usually given in the bibliography. In a note, only the name of the first author is included, followed by “et al.” with no intervening comma.

Example 4 (editor in place of author)
Use the abbreviation ed. or eds:

Newman, Mark, Albert-László Barabasi and Duncan J. Watts, eds. The Structure and Dynamics of Networks. Princeton studies in complexity. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006.

The citation must follow the general recommendations for citing books, and include at the end of the citation the format of the e-book (e-pub, PDF...) and the URL if the book was consulted online.

Example (bibliography):
Grainger, John D., The Battle for Syria, 1918-1920. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2013. PDF. www.jstor.org/stable/10.7722/j.ctt24hfx6

Notes
First Name, Last Name, « Title of chapter, » in Title of the book: Subtitle, book editor(s). Edition. Series title (Place of publication: Publisher, date of publication), Page number(s) if applicable.

Example
Neil Cooper, « Peaceful Warriors and Warring Peacemakers, » in Peacebuilding: Volume II, Peacebuilding and Development: The Challenges of Security, Welfare, Justice and the Rule of Law, eds Vincent Chetail and Oliver Jütersonke. Critical Concepts in Political Science (London: Routledge, 2015), 115.

Bibliography
Last Name, First Name. «Title of chapter. » In Title of the book: Subtitle, book editor(s), page rangeEdition. Series title. Place of publication: Publisher, date of publication.

Example
Cooper, Neil. « Peaceful Warriors and Warring Peacemakers. » In Peacebuilding: Volume II, Peacebuilding and Development: The Challenges of Security, Welfare, Justice and the Rule of Law, eds Vincent Chetail and Oliver Jütersonke, 111-118. Critical concepts in Political science. London: Routledge, 2015.

Notes
First Name Last Name, « Title of article, » Title of periodical volume, issue number (date of publication): page reference, URL or DOI.

Example
David D. Gow, "Anthropology and Development: Evil Twin Or Moral Narrative?" Human Organization 61, no. 4 (2002): 302, https://doi.org/10.17730/humo.61.4.abpjl35dc4k6aqb8.

Bibliography
Last Name, First Name. « Title of article. » Title of periodical volume, issue number (date of publication): page range. URL or DOI.

Example
Gow, David D.  "Anthropology and Development: Evil Twin Or Moral Narrative?" Human Organization 61, no. 4 (2002): 299-313. https://doi.org/10.17730/humo.61.4.abpjl35dc4k6aqb8.

Arabic numerals are used even if the journal itself uses Roman numerals. Neither month nor season is necessary if the issue number is given.

Notes
First Name Last Name, « Title of thesis » (Kind of thesis, Academic institution, year). Page reference.

Example:
Sabine Hoffmann, « Urban water and wastewater management in Cochabamba (Bolivia): an ecological and institutional analysis » (PhD diss., Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, 2010). 93-100.

Bibliography
Hoffmann, Sabine. « Urban water and wastewater management in Cochabamba (Bolivia): an ecological and institutional analysis». PhD diss., Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, 2010.

Notes
Author (physical, if known, or institution), "Title of the paper." Series, Publishing institution, Place of publication, Date. URL.

Example
International Crisis Group, "Myanmar: Storm Clouds on the Horizon." Asia Report n°238, International Crisis Group, Brussels, 12 november 2012. https://www.crisisgroup.org/asia/south-east-asia/myanmar/myanmar-storm-clouds-horizon.

Bibliography
Author. "Title of the paper." Series, Publishing institution, Place of publication, Date. URL.

Example
Evenett, Simon J., and Johannes Fritz. "The Tide Turns? Trade, Protectionism and Slowing Global Growth." The 18th Global Trade Report, CEPR Press, London, 12 november 2015. http://www.globaltradealert.org/reports/21.

Citations of unpublished interviews which are part of the research process should include: the names of both the person interviewed and the interviewer; brief identifying information, if appropriate; the place and/or date of the interview (who can simply be "the author"); the location of the transcript or recording.

If the bibliography includes all works cited in the notes, the notes citations can be shortened. Subsequent citations to sources already given in full should be shortened whenever possible.  The most common short form consists of the last name of the author and the main title of the work cited, usually shortened if more than four words.  

Example
1. Jean-Paul Gourévitch, La France en Afrique: cinq siècles de présence;  vérités et mensonges (Paris: Acropole, 2006).
2. Gourévitch, La France en Afrique, 54-62.

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