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Citing Sources

Guidelines and examples for the Chicago Style


There are many citation styles. This guide is based on the « Chicago style », one of the more commonly used. We can only give the broad outlines of the system; for all specific cases, please refer to the paper or online version of the Chicago Manual of Style:
Chicago Manual of Style Online

Law students should use specific legal styles. Our Legal Citation guide gives the main features of 3 of them.

Some computer programmes, called citation managers, allow to automate the citation process, and have become very efficient. See our Citation Manager Software guide and our Zotero guide to learn how to use them. Zotero training sessions are regularly organised at the Graduate Institute. 

Notes and Bibliography, or Author-Date

The Chicago Style consists of two different systems:

  • the first one, for humanities, is often used in history. Bibliographic citations are provided in notes (footnotes or endnotes), with or without a full bibliography at the end of the text.
  • The second system, the author-date system, is used in social sciences. Sources are cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by the author’s last name, the publication date of the work cited, and a page number if needed. Full details appear in the bibliography - usually titled « References » or « Works Cited » - in which the year of publication appears immediately after the author’s name.