Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Citing Sources

Referencing, avoiding plagiarism, and presentation of the Chicago Style

Text Citations

An author-date citation in running text or at the end of a block quotation consists of the last name of the author, followed by the year of publication of the work in question. No punctuation appears between author and date. Abbreviations such as ed. are omitted. Author-date citations must agree exactly, in both name and date, with the corresponding entries in the reference list, and there must be an entry for every text citation.

(Gourévitch 2006)
(Steven and Gunaratna 2004)

When a specific page is cited, it follows the date, preceded by a comma.

(Gourévitch 2006, 57)

Author-date citations are usually placed just before a mark of punctuation.

Reference List

A reference list is normally placed at the end of a work, preceding the index, if there is one. Because the text citations consist of the last name of the author and the date of publication, a reference list is always arranged alphabetically, rarely divided into sections, and the date of publication appears directly after the name.

Last Name, First Name. Date of publication. Title: Subtitle. Place of publication: Publisher.

Gourévitch, Jean-Paul. 2006. La France en Afrique: cinq siècles de présence;  vérités et mensonges. Paris: Acropole.

Journal Articles
Last Name, First Name. Date of publication. "Title of the article". Title of the periodical volume, number (month or season of publication): page reference. URL or DOI.

Farr, Vanessa. 2006. "Scared half to death: The gendered impacts of prolific small arms". Contemporary Security Policy 27 (April): 45-59.


The citation must follow the general recommendations for citing books, and include at the end of the citation the format of the e-book (e-pub, PDF...) and the URL if the book was consulted online.

Example (bibliography):
Grainger, John D., The Battle for Syria, 1918-1920. Woodbridge: Boydell and Brewer, 2013. PDF.