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Citing Sources

Referencing, avoiding plagiarism, and presentation of the Chicago Style

General Information

According to the COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics), AI tools such as ChatGPT cannot be regarded as authors. They are not human and cannot therefore take responsibility for the work. Authors using AI tools remain fully responsible for the content of their text. They must be transparent and disclose which tools were used and how they were used. 

It is not possible to share links to "conversations" with LLMs with other persons, as these links can only be accessed with your login details. However, browser extensions such as ShareGPT or A.I.Archives allow you to create publicly shareable links.

You should explain how you used the tool (including the prompt) in the Methods section of your paper.

Chicago Style

If you cannot provide a publicly available link, the editors of the Chicago Manual of Style recommend citing ChatGPT in a note or as an in-text citation, but not in the final bibliography or reference list. 
Example note: 1. Text generated by ChatGPT, OpenAI, March 7, 2023,
Example in-text citation: (ChatGPT, March 7, 2023)
Open AI, the company that developed ChatGPT, is considered to be the publisher or sponsor. 

If you have edited the AI-generated text, you must indicate this (e.g. "edited for style and content).


The APA Style team think that ChatGPT-generated text should not be treated as personal communication (like emails or phone calls) because LLMs are not people, but are more like algorithms' outputs. Therefore, the author of the tool (OpenAI for ChatGPT) should be cited. It should also be added in the reference list.
In-text citation: (OpenAI, 2023)
Reference list: OpenAI. (2023). ChatGPT (Mar 14 version) [Large language model].
The date is the year of the version you used.