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Citing Sources

Referencing, avoiding plagiarism, and presentation of the Chicago Style

The Chicago Style

This page and the following pages are an introduction to the « Chicago style ». We can only give the broad outlines of the system; for all specific cases, please refer to the paper or online version of the Chicago Manual of Style:
Chicago Manual of Style Online

Notes and Bibliography, or Author-Date

The Chicago Style consists of two different systems:

  • the first one, for humanities, is often used in history. Bibliographic citations are provided in notes (footnotes or endnotes), with or without a full bibliography at the end of the text.
  • The second system, the author-date system, is used in social sciences. Sources are cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by the author’s last name, the publication date of the work cited, and a page number if needed. Full details appear in the bibliography - usually titled « References » or « Works Cited » - in which the year of publication appears immediately after the author’s name.