Skip to Main Content

Citing Sources

Referencing, avoiding plagiarism, and presentation of the Chicago Style

The Chicago Style

This page and the following pages are an introduction to the "Chicago style". We can only give the broad outlines of the system; for all specific cases, please refer to the printed or online version of the Chicago Manual of Style:
Chicago Manual of Style Online

Notes and Bibliography, or Author-Date

The Chicago Style consists of two different systems:

  • the first, for the humanities, is often used in history. Bibliographic references are given in notes (footnotes or endnotes), with or without a full bibliography at the end of the text.
  • The second system, the author-date system, is used in the social sciences. Sources are cited in the text, usually in parentheses, with the author’s surname, the date of publication of the work cited, and a page number if necessary. Full details appear in the bibliography - usually entitled "References" or "Works Cited" - where the year of publication appears immediately after the author’s name.