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Citing Sources

Chicago Manual of Style: guidelines and examples


There are many citation styles. This guide is based on the « Chicago style », one of the more commonly used. We can only give the broad outlines of the system; for all specific cases, please refer to the paper or online version of the Chicago Manual of Style:
Chicago Manual of Style Online

Law students should use specific legal styles. Our Legal Citation guide gives the main features of 3 of them.

Some computer programmes, called citation managers, allow to automate the citation process and are really useful. Training sessions to learn how to use one of these programmes, Zotero, are regularly organised at the Institute. A Zotero online guide is also available

Notes and Bibliography, or Author-Date

The Chicago Style consists of two different systems:

  • the first one, for humanities, is often used in history. Bibliographic citations are provided in notes (footnotes or endnotes), with or without a full bibliography at the end of the text.
  • The second system, the author-date system, is used in social sciences. Sources are cited in the text, usually in parentheses, by the author’s last name, the publication date of the work cited, and a page number if needed. Full details appear in the bibliography - usually titled « References » or « Works Cited » - in which the year of publication appears immediately after the author’s name.